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NEW QUESTION 1
In biometric identification systems, the parts of the body conveniently available for identification are:
- A. neck and mouth
- B. hands, face, and eyes
- C. feet and hair
- D. voice and neck
Today implementation of fast, accurate, reliable, and user-acceptable biometric identification systems are already under way. Because most identity authentication takes place when a people are fully clothed (neck to feet and wrists), the parts of the body conveniently available for this purpose are hands, face, and eyes. From: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook, 4th Edition, Volume 1, Page 7.
NEW QUESTION 2
Which of the following is required in order to provide accountability?
- A. Authentication
- B. Integrity
- C. Confidentiality
- D. Audit trails
Accountability can actually be seen in two different ways:
1) Although audit trails are also needed for accountability, no user can be accountable for their actions unless properly authenticated.
2) Accountability is another facet of access control. Individuals on a system are responsible for their actions. This accountability property enables system activities to be traced to the proper individuals. Accountability is supported by audit trails that record events on the system and network. Audit trails can be used for intrusion detection and for the reconstruction of past events. Monitoring individual activities, such as keystroke monitoring, should be accomplished in accordance with the company policy and appropriate laws. Banners at the log-on time should notify the user of any monitoring that is being conducted.
The point is that unless you employ an appropriate auditing mechanism, you don't have accountability. Authorization only gives a user certain permissions on the network. Accountability is far more complex because it also includes intrusion detection, unauthorized actions by both unauthorized users and authorized users, and system faults. The audit trail provides the proof that unauthorized modifications by both authorized and unauthorized users took place. No proof, No accountability.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Page 50.
The Shon Harris AIO book, 4th Edition, on Page 243 also states:
Auditing Capabilities ensures users are accountable for their actions, verify that the secutiy policies are enforced,
and can be used as investigation tools. Accountability is tracked by recording user, system, and application activities.
This recording is done through auditing functions and mechanisms within an operating sytem or application.
Audit trail contain information about operating System activities, application events, and user actions.
NEW QUESTION 3
This is a common security issue that is extremely hard to control in large environments. It occurs when a user has more computer rights, permissions, and access than what is required for the tasks the user needs to fulfill. What best describes this scenario?
- A. Excessive Rights
- B. Excessive Access
- C. Excessive Permissions
- D. Excessive Privileges
Even thou all 4 terms are very close to each other, the best choice is Excessive Privileges which would include the other three choices presented.
Reference(s) used for this question:
HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2001, Page 645.
NEW QUESTION 4
Preservation of confidentiality within information systems requires that the information is not disclosed to:
- A. Authorized person
- B. Unauthorized persons or processes.
- C. Unauthorized persons.
- D. Authorized persons and processes
Confidentiality assures that the information is not disclosed to unauthorized persons or processes.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 31.
NEW QUESTION 5
Which of the following phases of a system development life-cycle is most concerned with maintaining proper authentication of users and processes to ensure appropriate access control decisions?
- A. Development/acquisition
- B. Implementation
- C. Operation/Maintenance
- D. Initiation
The operation phase of an IT system is concerned with user authentication.
Authentication is the process where a system establishes the validity of a transmission, message, or a means of verifying the eligibility of an individual, process, or machine to carry out a desired action, thereby ensuring that security is not compromised by an untrusted source.
It is essential that adequate authentication be achieved in order to implement security policies and achieve security goals. Additionally, level of trust is always an issue when dealing with cross-domain interactions. The solution is to establish an authentication policy and apply it to cross-domain interactions as required.
Source: STONEBURNER, Gary & al, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), NIST Special Publication 800-27, Engineering Principles for Information Technology Security (A Baseline for Achieving Security), June 2001 (page 15).
NEW QUESTION 6
Which of the following is a LAN transmission method?
- A. Broadcast
- B. Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)
- C. Token ring
- D. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
LAN transmission methods refer to the way packets are sent on the network and are either unicast, multicast or broadcast.
CSMA/CD is a common LAN media access method. Token ring is a LAN Topology.
LAN transmission protocols are the rules for communicating between computers on a LAN. Common LAN transmission protocols are: polling and token-passing.
A LAN topology defines the manner in which the network devices are organized to facilitate communications.
Common LAN topologies are: bus, ring, star or meshed.
LAN transmission methods refer to the way packets are sent on the network and are either unicast, multicast or broadcast.
LAN media access methods control the use of a network (physical and data link layers). They can be Ethernet, ARCnet, Token ring and FDDI.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and Network Security (page 103).
HERE IS A NICE OVERVIEW FROM CISCO:
LAN Transmission Methods
LAN data transmissions fall into three classifications: unicast, multicast, and broadcast. In each type of transmission, a single packet is sent to one or more nodes.
In a unicast transmission, a single packet is sent from the source to a destination on a network. First, the source node addresses the packet by using the address of the destination node. The package is then sent onto the network, and finally, the network passes the packet to its destination.
A multicast transmission consists of a single data packet that is copied and sent to a specific subset of nodes on the network. First, the source node addresses the packet by using a multicast address. The packet is then sent into the network, which makes copies of the packet and sends a copy to each node that is part of the multicast address.
A broadcast transmission consists of a single data packet that is copied and sent to all nodes on the network. In these types of transmissions, the source node addresses the packet by using the broadcast address. The packet is then sent on to the network, which makes copies of the packet and sends a copy to every node on the network.
LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are organized. Four common LAN topologies exist: bus, ring, star, and tree. These topologies are logical architectures, but the actual devices need not be physically organized in these configurations. Logical bus and ring topologies, for example, are commonly organized physically as a star. A bus topology is a linear LAN architecture in which transmissions from network stations propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other stations. Of the three most widely used LAN implementations, Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 networks??including 100BaseT??implement a bus topology
KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and Network Security (page 104). http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/introlan.htm
NEW QUESTION 7
What is the RESULT of a hash algorithm being applied to a message ?
- A. A digital signature
- B. A ciphertext
- C. A message digest
- D. A plaintext
As when a hash algorithm is applied on a message , it produces a message digest.
The other answers are incorrect because :
A digital signature is a hash value that has been encrypted with a sender's private key. A ciphertext is a message that appears to be unreadable.
A plaintext is a readable data.
Reference : Shon Harris , AIO v3 , Chapter-8 : Cryptography , Page : 593-594 , 640 , 648
NEW QUESTION 8
Which of the following is the primary reason why a user would choose a dial-up modem connection to the Internet when they have a faster, secure Internet connection through the organization's network?
- A. To access web sites that blocked by the organization's proxy server.
- B. To set up public services using the organization's resources.
- C. To check their personal e-mail.
- D. To circumvent the organization's security policy.
All the choices above represent examples of circumventing the organization's security policy, which is the primary reason why a user would be using a dial-up Internet connection when a secure connection is available through the organization's network.
Source: STREBE, Matthew and PERKINS, Charles, Firewalls 24seven, Sybex 2000, Chapter 1: Understanding Firewalls.
NEW QUESTION 9
What can be described as an imaginary line that separates the trusted components of the TCB from those elements that are NOT trusted?
- A. The security kernel
- B. The reference monitor
- C. The security perimeter
- D. The reference perimeter
The security perimeter is the imaginary line that separates the trusted components of the kernel and the Trusted Computing Base (TCB) from those elements that are not trusted. The reference monitor is an abstract machine that mediates all accesses to objects by subjects. The security kernel can be software, firmware or hardware components in a trusted system and is the actual instantiation of the reference monitor. The reference perimeter is not defined and is a distracter.
Source: HARE, Chris, Security Architecture and Models, Area 6 CISSP Open Study Guide, January 2002.
NEW QUESTION 10
Which of the following protects Kerberos against replay attacks?
- A. Tokens
- B. Passwords
- C. Cryptography
- D. Time stamps
A replay attack refers to the recording and retransmission of packets on the network. Kerberos uses time stamps, which protect against this type of attack.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw- Hill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 8: Cryptography (page 581).
NEW QUESTION 11
Which of the following embodies all the detailed actions that personnel are required to follow?
- A. Standards
- B. Guidelines
- C. Procedures
- D. Baselines
Procedures are step-by-step instructions in support of of the policies, standards, guidelines and baselines. The procedure indicates how the policy will be implemented and who does what to accomplish the tasks."
Standards is incorrect. Standards are a "Mandatory statement of minimum requirements that support some part of a policy, the standards in this case is your own company standards and not standards such as the ISO standards"
Guidelines is incorrect. "Guidelines are discretionary or optional controls used to enable individuals to make judgments with respect to security actions."
Baselines is incorrect. Baselines "are a minimum acceptable level of security. This minimum is implemented using specific rules necessary to implement the security controls in support of the policy and standards." For example, requiring a password of at leat 8 character would be an example. Requiring all users to have a minimun of an antivirus, a personal firewall, and an anti spyware tool could be another example.
CBK, pp. 12 - 16. Note especially the discussion of the "hammer policy" on pp. 16-17 for the differences between policy, standard, guideline and procedure.
AIO3, pp. 88-93.
NEW QUESTION 12
Which of the following pairings uses technology to enforce access control policies?
- A. Preventive/Administrative
- B. Preventive/Technical
- C. Preventive/Physical
- D. Detective/Administrative
The preventive/technical pairing uses technology to enforce access control policies.
Technical security involves the use of safeguards incorporated in computer hardware, operations or applications software, communications hardware and software, and related devices. Technical controls are sometimes referred to as logical controls.
Preventive Technical Controls
Preventive technical controls are used to prevent unauthorized personnel or programs from gaining remote access to computing resources. Examples of these controls include:
Access control software. Antivirus software. Library control systems. Passwords.
Smart cards. Encryption.
Dial-up access control and callback systems.
Preventive Physical Controls
Preventive physical controls are employed to prevent unauthorized personnel from entering computing facilities (i.e., locations housing computing resources, supporting utilities, computer hard copy, and input data media) and to help protect against natural disasters. Examples of these controls include:
Backup files and documentation. Fences.
Security guards. Badge systems. Double door systems. Locks and keys. Backup power.
Biometric access controls. Site selection.
Preventive Administrative Controls
Preventive administrative controls are personnel-oriented techniques for controlling people??s behavior to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of computing data and programs. Examples of preventive administrative controls include:
Security awareness and technical training. Separation of duties.
Procedures for recruiting and terminating employees. Security policies and procedures.
Disaster recovery, contingency, and emergency plans. User registration for computer access.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the
Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 34.
NEW QUESTION 13
What enables users to validate each other's certificate when they are certified under different certification hierarchies?
- A. Cross-certification
- B. Multiple certificates
- C. Redundant certification authorities
- D. Root certification authorities
Cross-certification is the act or process by which two CAs each certifiy a public key of the other, issuing a public-key certificate to that other CA, enabling users that are certified under different certification hierarchies to validate each other's certificate. Source: SHIREY, Robert W., RFC2828: Internet Security Glossary, may 2000.
NEW QUESTION 14
How are memory cards and smart cards different?
- A. Memory cards normally hold more memory than smart cards
- B. Smart cards provide a two-factor authentication whereas memory cards don't
- C. Memory cards have no processing power
- D. Only smart cards can be used for ATM cards
The main difference between memory cards and smart cards is their capacity to process information. A memory card holds information but cannot process information. A smart card holds information and has the necessary hardware and software to actually process that information.
A memory card holds a user??s authentication information, so that this user needs only type in a user ID or PIN and presents the memory card to the system. If the entered information and the stored information match and are approved by an authentication service, the user is successfully authenticated.
A common example of a memory card is a swipe card used to provide entry to a building. The user enters a PIN and swipes the memory card through a card reader. If this is the correct combination, the reader flashes green and the individual can open the door and enter the building.
Memory cards can also be used with computers, but they require a reader to process the information. The reader adds cost to the process, especially when one is needed for every computer. Additionally, the overhead of PIN and card generation adds additional overhead and complexity to the whole authentication process. However, a memory card provides a more secure authentication method than using only a password because the attacker would need to obtain the card and know the correct PIN.
Administrators and management need to weigh the costs and benefits of a memory card implementation as well as the security needs of the organization to determine if it is the right authentication mechanism for their environment.
One of the most prevalent weaknesses of memory cards is that data stored on the card are not protected. Unencrypted data on the card (or stored on the magnetic strip) can be extracted or copied. Unlike a smart card, where security controls and logic are embedded in the integrated circuit, memory cards do not employ an inherent mechanism to protect the data from exposure.
Very little trust can be associated with confidentiality and integrity of information on the memory cards.
The following answers are incorrect:
"Smart cards provide two-factor authentication whereas memory cards don't" is incorrect. This is not necessarily true. A memory card can be combined with a pin or password to offer two factors authentication where something you have and something you know are
used for factors.
"Memory cards normally hold more memory than smart cards" is incorrect. While a memory card may or may not have more memory than a smart card, this is certainly not the best answer to the question.
"Only smart cards can be used for ATM cards" is incorrect. This depends on the decisions made by the particular institution and is not the best answer to the question.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Shon Harris, CISSP All In One, 6th edition , Access Control, Page 199 and also for people using the Kindle edition of the book you can look at Locations 4647-4650.
Schneiter, Andrew (2013-04-15). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition : Access Control ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 2124-2139). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
NEW QUESTION 15
Which of the following is an extension to Network Address Translation that permits multiple devices providing services on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address?
- A. IP Spoofing
- B. IP subnetting
- C. Port address translation
- D. IP Distribution
Port Address Translation (PAT), is an extension to network address translation (NAT) that permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address. The goal of PAT is to conserve IP addresses or to publish multiple hosts with service to the internet while having only one single IP assigned on the external side of your gateway.
Most home networks use PAT. In such a scenario, the Internet Service Provider (ISP) assigns a single IP address to the home network's router. When Computer X logs on the Internet, the router assigns the client a port number, which is appended to the internal IP address. This, in effect, gives Computer X a unique address. If Computer Z logs on the Internet at the same time, the router assigns it the same local IP address with a different port number. Although both computers are sharing the same public IP address and accessing the Internet at the same time, the router knows exactly which computer to send specific packets to because each computer has a unique internal address.
Port Address Translation is also called porting, port overloading, port-level multiplexed NAT and single address NAT.
Shon Harris has the following example in her book:
The company owns and uses only one public IP address for all systems that need to communicate outside the internal network. How in the world could all computers use the exact same IP address? Good question. Here??s an example: The NAT device has an IP
address of 127.50.41.3. When computer A needs to communicate with a system on the Internet, the NAT device documents this computer??s private address and source port number (10.10.44.3; port 43,887). The NAT device changes the IP address in the computer??s packet header to 127.50.41.3, with the source port 40,000. When computer B also needs to communicate with a system on the Internet, the NAT device documents the private address and source port number (10.10.44.15; port 23,398) and changes the header information to 127.50.41.3 with source port 40,001. So when a system responds to computer A, the packet first goes to the NAT device, which looks up the port number 40,000 and sees that it maps to computer A??s real information. So the NAT device changes the header information to address 10.10.44.3 and port 43,887 and sends it to computer A for processing. A company can save a lot more money by using PAT, because the company needs to buy only a few public IP addresses, which are used by all systems in the network.
As mentioned on Wikipedia:
NAT is also known as Port Address Translation: is a feature of a network device that translate TCP or UDP communications made between host on a private network and host on a public network. I allows a single public IP address to be used by many host on private network which is usually a local area network LAN
NAT effectively hides all TCP/IP-level information about internal hosts from the Internet. The following were all incorrect Answer.
IP Spoofing - In computer networking, the term IP address spoofing or IP spoofing refers to the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a forged source IP address, called spoofing, with the purpose of concealing the identity of the sender or impersonating another computing system.
Subnetting - Subnetting is a network design strategy that segregates a larger network into smaller components. While connected through the larger network, each subnetwork or subnet functions with a unique IP address. All systems that are assigned to a particular subnet will share values that are common for both the subnet and for the network as a whole.
A different approach to network construction can be thought of as subnetting in reverse. Known as CIDR, or Classless Inter-Domain Routing, this approach also creates a series of subnetworks. Rather than dividing an existing network into small components, CIDR takes smaller components and connects them into a larger network. This can often be the case when a business is acquired by a larger corporation. Instead of doing away with the
network developed and used by the newly acquired business, the corporation chooses to continue operating that network as a subsidiary or an added component of the corporation??s network. In effect, the system of the purchased entity becomes a subnet of the parent company's network.
IP Distribution - This is a generic term which could mean distribution of content over an IP network or distribution of IP addresses within a Company. Sometimes people will refer to this as Internet Protocol address management (IPAM) is a means of planning, tracking, and managing the Internet Protocol address space used in a network. Most commonly, tools such as DNS and DHCP are used in conjunction as integral functions of the IP address management function, and true IPAM glues these point services together so that each is aware of changes in the other (for instance DNS knowing of the IP address taken by a client via DHCP, and updating itself accordingly). Additional functionality, such as controlling reservations in DHCP as well as other data aggregation and reporting capability, is also common. IPAM tools are increasingly important as new IPv6 networks are deployed with larger address pools, different subnetting techniques, and more complex 128-bit hexadecimal numbers which are not as easily human-readable as IPv4 addresses.
Reference(s) used for this question:
STREBE, Matthew and PERKINS, Charles, Firewalls 24seven, Sybex 2000, Chapter 1: Understanding Firewalls.
Schneiter, Andrew (2013-04-15). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition : Telecommunications and Network Security, Page 350.
Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (Kindle Locations 12765-12774). Telecommunications and Network Security, Page 604-606
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Port-Address-Translation-PAT http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_address_spoofing http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-subnetting.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_address_management
NEW QUESTION 16
Which of the following biometric devices offers the LOWEST CER?
- A. Keystroke dynamics
- B. Voice verification
- C. Iris scan
- D. Fingerprint
From most effective (lowest CER) to least effective (highest CER) are: Iris scan, fingerprint, voice verification, keystroke dynamics.
Reference : Shon Harris Aio v3 , Chapter-4 : Access Control , Page : 131
Also see: http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/authentication/biometric-selection-body-parts-online_139
NEW QUESTION 17
Which of the following groups represents the leading source of computer crime losses?
- A. Hackers
- B. Industrial saboteurs
- C. Foreign intelligence officers
- D. Employees
There are some conflicting figures as to which group is a bigger threat hackers or employees. Employees are still considered to the leading source of computer crime losses. Employees often have an easier time gaining access to systems or source code then ousiders or other means of creating computer crimes.
A word of caution is necessary: although the media has tended to portray the threat of cybercrime as existing almost exclusively from the outside, external to a company, reality paints a much different picture. Often the greatest risk of cybercrime comes from the inside, namely, criminal insiders. Information security professionals must be particularly sensitive to the phenomena of the criminal or dangerous insider, as these individuals usually operate under the radar, inside of the primarily outward/external facing security controls, thus significantly increasing the impact of their crimes while leaving few, if any, audit trails to follow and evidence for prosecution.
Some of the large scale crimes committed agains bank lately has shown that Internal Threats are the worst and they are more common that one would think. The definition of what a hacker is can vary greatly from one country to another but in some of the states in the USA a hacker is defined as Someone who is using resources in a way that is not authorized. A recent case in Ohio involved an internal employee who was spending most of his day on dating website looking for the love of his life. The employee was taken to court for hacking the company resources.
The following answers are incorrect:
hackers. Is incorrect because while hackers represent a very large problem and both the frequency of attacks and overall losses have grown hackers are considered to be a small segment of combined computer fraudsters.
industrial saboteurs. Is incorrect because industrial saboteurs tend to go after trade secrets. While the loss to the organization can be great, they still fall short when compared to the losses created by employees. Often it is an employee that was involved in industrial sabotage.
foreign intelligence officers. Is incorrect because the losses tend to be national secrets. You really can't put t cost on this and the number of frequency and occurances of this is less than that of employee related losses.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 22327-22331). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
NEW QUESTION 18
Which of the following are additional access control objectives?
- A. Consistency and utility
- B. Reliability and utility
- C. Usefulness and utility
- D. Convenience and utility
Availability assures that a system's authorized users have timely and uninterrupted access to the information in the system. The additional access control objectives are reliability and utility. These and other related objectives flow from the organizational security policy. This policy is a high-level statement of management intent regarding the control of access to information and the personnel who are authorized to receive that information. Three things that must be considered for the planning and implementation of access control mechanisms are the threats to the system, the system's vulnerability to these threats, and the risk that the threat may materialize
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 32.
NEW QUESTION 19
Which division of the Orange Book deals with discretionary protection (need-to-know)?
- A. D
- B. C
- C. B
- D. A
C deals with discretionary protection. See matric below:
The following are incorrect answers:
D is incorrect. D deals with minimal security.
B is incorrect. B deals with mandatory protection. A is incorrect. A deals with verified protection. Reference(s) used for this question:
CBK, p. 329 ?C 330
Shon Harris, CISSP All In One (AIO), 6th Edition , page 392-393
NEW QUESTION 20
The primary purpose for using one-way hashing of user passwords within a password file is which of the following?
- A. It prevents an unauthorized person from trying multiple passwords in one logon attempt.
- B. It prevents an unauthorized person from reading the password.
- C. It minimizes the amount of storage required for user passwords.
- D. It minimizes the amount of processing time used for encrypting passwords.
The whole idea behind a one-way hash is that it should be just that - one- way. In other words, an attacker should not be able to figure out your password from the hashed version of that password in any mathematically feasible way (or within any reasonable length of time).
Password Hashing and Encryption
In most situations , if an attacker sniffs your password from the network wire, she still has some work to do before she actually knows your password value because most systems hash the password with a hashing algorithm, commonly MD4 or MD5, to ensure passwords are not sent in cleartext.
Although some people think the world is run by Microsoft, other types of operating systems are out there, such as Unix and Linux. These systems do not use registries and SAM
databases, but contain their user passwords in a file cleverly called ??shadow.?? Now, this shadow file does not contain passwords in cleartext; instead, your password is run through a hashing algorithm, and the resulting value is stored in this file.
Unixtype systems zest things up by using salts in this process. Salts are random values added to the encryption process to add more complexity and randomness. The more randomness entered into the encryption process, the harder it is for the bad guy to decrypt and uncover your password. The use of a salt means that the same password can be encrypted into several thousand different formats. This makes it much more difficult for an attacker to uncover the right format for your system.
Password Cracking tools
Note that the use of one-way hashes for passwords does not prevent password crackers from guessing passwords. A password cracker runs a plain-text string through the same one-way hash algorithm used by the system to generate a hash, then compares that generated has with the one stored on the system. If they match, the password cracker has guessed your password.
This is very much the same process used to authenticate you to a system via a password. When you type your username and password, the system hashes the password you typed and compares that generated hash against the one stored on the system - if they match, you are authenticated.
Pre-Computed password tables exists today and they allow you to crack passwords on Lan Manager (LM) within a VERY short period of time through the use of Rainbow Tables. A Rainbow Table is a precomputed table for reversing cryptographic hash functions, usually for cracking password hashes. Tables are usually used in recovering a plaintext password up to a certain length consisting of a limited set of characters. It is a practical example of a space/time trade-off also called a Time-Memory trade off, using more computer processing time at the cost of less storage when calculating a hash on every attempt, or less processing time and more storage when compared to a simple lookup table with one entry per hash. Use of a key derivation function that employs a salt makes this attack unfeasible.
You may want to review "Rainbow Tables" at the links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_table http://www.antsight.com/zsl/rainbowcrack/
Today's password crackers:
Meet oclHashcat. They are GPGPU-based multi-hash cracker using a brute-force attack (implemented as mask attack), combinator attack, dictionary attack, hybrid attack, mask
attack, and rule-based attack.
This GPU cracker is a fusioned version of oclHashcat-plus and oclHashcat-lite, both very well-known suites at that time, but now deprecated. There also existed a now very old oclHashcat GPU cracker that was replaced w/ plus and lite, which - as said - were then merged into oclHashcat 1.00 again.
This cracker can crack Hashes of NTLM Version 2 up to 8 characters in less than a few hours. It is definitively a game changer. It can try hundreds of billions of tries per seconds on a very large cluster of GPU's. It supports up to 128 Video Cards at once.
I am stuck using Password what can I do to better protect myself?
You could look at safer alternative such as Bcrypt, PBKDF2, and Scrypt.
bcrypt is a key derivation function for passwords designed by Niels Provos and David Mazi??res, based on the Blowfish cipher, and presented at USENIX in 1999. Besides incorporating a salt to protect against rainbow table attacks, bcrypt is an adaptive function: over time, the iteration count can be increased to make it slower, so it remains resistant to brute-force search attacks even with increasing computation power.
In cryptography, scrypt is a password-based key derivation function created by Colin Percival, originally for the Tarsnap online backup service. The algorithm was specifically designed to make it costly to perform large-scale custom hardware attacks by requiring large amounts of memory. In 2012, the scrypt algorithm was published by the IETF as an Internet Draft, intended to become an informational RFC, which has since expired. A simplified version of scrypt is used as a proof-of-work scheme by a number of cryptocurrencies, such as Litecoin and Dogecoin.
PBKDF2 (Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2) is a key derivation function that is part of RSA Laboratories' Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) series, specifically PKCS #5 v2.0, also published as Internet Engineering Task Force's RFC 2898. It replaces an earlier standard, PBKDF1, which could only produce derived keys up to 160 bits long.
PBKDF2 applies a pseudorandom function, such as a cryptographic hash, cipher, or HMAC to the input password or passphrase along with a salt value and repeats the process many times to produce a derived key, which can then be used as a cryptographic key in subsequent operations. The added computational work makes password cracking much more difficult, and is known as key stretching. When the standard was written in 2000, the recommended minimum number of iterations was 1000, but the parameter is intended to
be increased over time as CPU speeds increase. Having a salt added to the password reduces the ability to use precomputed hashes (rainbow tables) for attacks, and means that multiple passwords have to be tested individually, not all at once. The standard recommends a salt length of at least 64 bits.
The other answers are incorrect:
"It prevents an unauthorized person from trying multiple passwords in one logon attempt." is incorrect because the fact that a password has been hashed does not prevent this type of brute force password guessing attempt.
"It minimizes the amount of storage required for user passwords" is incorrect because hash algorithms always generate the same number of bits, regardless of the length of the input. Therefore, even short passwords will still result in a longer hash and not minimize storage requirements.
"It minimizes the amount of processing time used for encrypting passwords" is incorrect because the processing time to encrypt a password would be basically the same required to produce a one-way has of the same password.
Reference(s) used for this question: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBKDF2
Harris, Shon (2012-10-18). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (p. 195) . McGraw- Hill. Kindle Edition.
NEW QUESTION 21
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) uses a Message Authentication Code (MAC) for what purpose?
- A. message non-repudiation.
- B. message confidentiality.
- C. message interleave checking.
- D. message integrity.
A keyed hash also called a MAC (message authentication code) is used for integrity protection and authenticity.
In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC) is a generated value used to authenticate a message. A MAC can be generated by HMAC or CBC-MAC methods. The MAC protects both a message??s integrity (by ensuring that a different MAC will be produced if the message has changed) as well as its authenticity, because only someone who knows the secret key could have modified the message.
MACs differ from digital signatures as MAC values are both generated and verified using the same secret key. This implies that the sender and receiver of a message must agree on the same key before initiating communications, as is the case with symmetric encryption. For the same reason, MACs do not provide the property of non-repudiation offered by signatures specifically in the case of a network-wide shared secret key: any user who can verify a MAC is also capable of generating MACs for other messages.
When using HMAC the symmetric key of the sender would be concatenated (added at the end) with the message. The result of this process (message + secret key) would be put through a hashing algorithm, and the result would be a MAC value. This MAC value is then appended to the message being sent. If an enemy were to intercept this message and modify it, he would not have the necessary symmetric key to create a valid MAC value. The receiver would detect the tampering because the MAC value would not be valid on the receiving side.
If a CBC-MAC is being used, the message is encrypted with a symmetric block cipher in
CBC mode, and the output of the final block of ciphertext is used as the MAC. The sender does not send the encrypted version of the message, but instead sends the plaintext version and the MAC attached to the message. The receiver receives the plaintext message and encrypts it with the same symmetric block cipher in CBC mode and calculates an independent MAC value. The receiver compares the new MAC value with the MAC value sent with the message. This method does not use a hashing algorithm as does HMAC.
Cipher-Based Message Authentication Code (CMAC)
Some security issues with CBC-MAC were found and they created Cipher-Based Message Authentication Code (CMAC) as a replacement. CMAC provides the same type of data origin authentication and integrity as CBC-MAC, but is more secure mathematically. CMAC is a variation of CBC-MAC. It is approved to work with AES and Triple DES. HMAC, CBC- MAC, and CMAC work higher in the network stack and can identify not only transmission errors (accidental), but also more nefarious modifications, as in an attacker messing with a message for her own benefit. This means all of these technologies can identify intentional, unauthorized modifications and accidental changes?? three in one.
The following are all incorrect answers: "Message non-repudiation" is incorrect.
Nonrepudiation is the assurance that someone cannot deny something. Typically, nonrepudiation refers to the ability to ensure that a party to a contract or a communication cannot deny the authenticity of their signature on a document or the sending of a message that they originated.
To repudiate means to deny. For many years, authorities have sought to make repudiation impossible in some situations. You might send registered mail, for example, so the recipient cannot deny that a letter was delivered. Similarly, a legal document typically requires witnesses to signing so that the person who signs cannot deny having done so.
On the Internet, a digital signature is used not only to ensure that a message or document has been electronically signed by the person that purported to sign the document, but also, since a digital signature can only be created by one person, to ensure that a person cannot later deny that they furnished the signature.
"Message confidentiality" is incorrect. The Message confidentiality is protected by encryption not by hashing algorithms.
"Message interleave checking" is incorrect. This is a nonsense term included as a distractor.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (p. 1384). McGraw- Hill. Kindle Edition.
http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/nonrepudiation and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_authentication_code
NEW QUESTION 22
When referring to a computer crime investigation, which of the following would be the MOST important step required in order to preserve and maintain a proper chain of custody of evidence:
- A. Evidence has to be collected in accordance with all laws and all legal regulations.
- B. Law enforcement officials should be contacted for advice on how and when to collect critical information.
- C. Verifiable documentation indicating the who, what, when, where, and how the evidence was handled should be available.
- D. Log files containing information regarding an intrusion are retained for at least as long as normal business records, and longer in the case of an ongoing investigation.
Two concepts that are at the heart of dealing effectively with digital/electronic evidence, or any evidence for that matter, are the chain of custody and authenticity/integrity.
The chain of custody refers to the who, what, when, where, and how the evidence was handled??from its identification through its entire life cycle, which ends with destruction or permanent archiving.
Any break in this chain can cast doubt on the integrity of the evidence and on the professionalism of those directly involved in either the investigation or the collection and handling of the evidence. The chain of custody requires following a formal process that is well documented and forms part of a standard operating procedure that is used in all cases, no exceptions.
The following are incorrect answers:
Evidence has to be collected in accordance with all laws and legal regulations. Evidence would have to be collected in accordance with applicable laws and regulations but not necessarily with ALL laws and regulations. Only laws and regulations that applies would be followed.
Law enforcement officials should be contacted for advice on how and when to collect critical information. It seems you failed to do your homework, once you have an incident it is a bit late to do this. Proper crime investigation as well as incident response is all about being prepared ahead of time. Obviously, you are improvising if you need to call law enforcement to find out what to do. It is a great way of contaminating your evidence by mistake if you don't have a well documented processs with clear procedures that needs to be followed.
Log files containing information regarding an intrusion are retained for at least as long as normal business records, and longer in the case of an ongoing investigation. Specific legal requirements exists for log retention and they are not the same as normal business records. Laws such as Basel, HIPPAA, SOX, and others has specific requirements.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 23465-23470). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
ALLEN, Julia H., The CERT Guide to System and Network Security Practices, Addison- Wesley, 2001, Chapter 7: Responding to Intrusions (pages 282-285).
NEW QUESTION 23
What can be defined as secret communications where the very existence of the message is hidden?
- A. Clustering
- B. Steganography
- C. Cryptology
- D. Vernam cipher
Steganography is a secret communication where the very existence of the message is hidden. For example, in a digital image, the least significant bit of each word can be used to comprise a message without causing any significant change in the image. Key clustering is a situation in which a plaintext message generates identical ciphertext
messages using the same transformation algorithm but with different keys. Cryptology encompasses cryptography and cryptanalysis. The Vernam Cipher, also called a one-time pad, is an encryption scheme using a random key of the same size as the message and is used only once. It is said to be unbreakable, even with infinite resources.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (page 134).
NEW QUESTION 24
Which of the following are WELL KNOWN PORTS assigned by the IANA?
- A. Ports 0 to 255
- B. Ports 0 to 1024
- C. Ports 0 to 1023
- D. Ports 0 to 127
The port numbers are divided into three ranges: the Well Known Ports, the Registered Ports, and the Dynamic and/or Private Ports. The range for assigned "Well Known" ports managed by the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) is 0-1023.
Source: iana.org: port assignments.
NEW QUESTION 25
Which of the following is the most reliable, secure means of removing data from magnetic storage media such as a magnetic tape, or a cassette?
- A. Degaussing
- B. Parity Bit Manipulation
- C. Zeroization
- D. Buffer overflow
A "Degausser (Otherwise known as a Bulk Eraser) has the main function of reducing to near zero the magnetic flux stored in the magnetized medium. Flux density is measured in Gauss or Tesla. The operation is speedier than overwriting and done in one short operation. This is achieved by subjecting the subject in bulk to a series of fields of alternating polarity and gradually decreasing strength.
The following answers are incorrect:Parity Bit Manipulation. Parity has to do with disk lerror detection, not data removal. A bit or series of bits appended to a character or block of characters to ensure that the information received is the same as the infromation that was sent.
Zeroization. Zeroization involves overwrting data to sanitize it. It is time-consuming and not foolproof. The potential of restoration of data does exist with this method.
Buffer overflow. This is a detractor. Although many Operating Systems use a disk buffer to temporarily hold data read from disk, its primary purpose has no connection to data removal. An overflow goes outside the constraints defined for the buffer and is a method used by an attacker to attempt access to a system.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: Shon Harris AIO v3. pg 908
Reference: What is degaussing.
NEW QUESTION 26
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