A Review Of Printable SSCP Free Samples
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NEW QUESTION 1
Which type of attack is based on the probability of two different messages using the same hash function producing a common message digest?
- A. Differential cryptanalysis
- B. Differential linear cryptanalysis
- C. Birthday attack
- D. Statistical attack
A Birthday attack is usually applied to the probability of two different messages using the same hash function producing a common message digest.
The term "birthday" comes from the fact that in a room with 23 people, the probability of two of more people having the same birthday is greater than 50%.
Linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher. Attacks have been developed for block ciphers and stream ciphers. Linear cryptanalysis is one of the two most widely used attacks on block ciphers; the other being differential cryptanalysis.
Differential Cryptanalysis is a potent cryptanalytic technique introduced by Biham and Shamir. Differential cryptanalysis is designed for the study and attack of DES-like cryptosystems. A DES-like cryptosystem is an iterated cryptosystem which relies on conventional cryptographic techniques such as substitution and diffusion.
Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. In the broadest sense, it is the study of how differences in an input can affect the resultant difference at the output. In the case of a block cipher, it refers to a set of techniques for tracing differences through the network of transformations, discovering where the cipher exhibits non-random behaviour, and exploiting such properties to recover the secret key.
KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (page 163).
NEW QUESTION 2
Which of the following standards concerns digital certificates?
- A. X.400
- B. X.25
- C. X.509
- D. X.75
X.509 is used in digital certificates. X.400 is used in e-mail as a message handling protocol. X.25 is a standard for the network and data link levels of a communication network and X.75 is a standard defining ways of connecting two X.25 networks.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (page 164).
NEW QUESTION 3
Which of the following can be used as a covert channel?
- A. Storage and timing.
- B. Storage and low bits.
- C. Storage and permissions.
- D. Storage and classification.
The Orange book requires protection against two types of covert channels, Timing and Storage.
The following answers are incorrect:
Storage and low bits. Is incorrect because, low bits would not be considered a covert channel.
Storage and permissions. Is incorrect because, permissions would not be considered a covert channel.
Storage and classification. Is incorrect because, classification would not be considered a covert channel.
NEW QUESTION 4
Which of the following statements pertaining to Kerberos is TRUE?
- A. Kerberos does not address availability
- B. Kerberos does not address integrity
- C. Kerberos does not make use of Symmetric Keys
- D. Kerberos cannot address confidentiality of information
The question was asking for a TRUE statement and the only correct statement is "Kerberos does not address availability".
Kerberos addresses the confidentiality and integrity of information. It does not directly address availability.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 2: Access control
systems (page 42).
NEW QUESTION 5
In Mandatory Access Control, sensitivity labels attached to object contain what information?
- A. The item's classification
- B. The item's classification and category set
- C. The item's category
- D. The items's need to know
A Sensitivity label must contain at least one classification and one category set.
Category set and Compartment set are synonyms, they mean the same thing. The sensitivity label must contain at least one Classification and at least one Category. It is common in some environments for a single item to belong to multiple categories. The list of all the categories to which an item belongs is called a compartment set or category set.
The following answers are incorrect:
the item's classification. Is incorrect because you need a category set as well.
the item's category. Is incorrect because category set and classification would be both be required.
The item's need to know. Is incorrect because there is no such thing. The need to know is indicated by the catergories the object belongs to. This is NOT the best answer.
Reference(s) used for this question:
OIG CBK, Access Control (pages 186 - 188)
AIO, 3rd Edition, Access Control (pages 162 - 163) AIO, 4th Edittion, Access Control, pp 212-214.
Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandatory_Access_Control
NEW QUESTION 6
The standard server port number for HTTP is which of the following?
- A. 81
- B. 80
- C. 8080
- D. 8180
HTTP is Port 80.
Reference: MAIWALD, Eric, Network Security: A Beginner's Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne Media, 2001, page 135.
NEW QUESTION 7
In the days before CIDR (Classless Internet Domain Routing), networks were commonly organized by classes. Which of the following would have been true of a Class B network?
- A. The first bit of the IP address would be set to zero.
- B. The first bit of the IP address would be set to one and the second bit set to zero.
- C. The first two bits of the IP address would be set to one, and the third bit set to zero.
- D. The first three bits of the IP address would be set to one.
Each Class B network address has a 16-bit network prefix, with the two highest order bits set to 1-0.
The following answers are incorrect:
The first bit of the IP address would be set to zero. Is incorrect because, this would be a Class A network address.
The first two bits of the IP address would be set to one, and the third bit set to zero. Is incorrect because, this would be a Class C network address.
The first three bits of the IP address would be set to one. Is incorrect because, this is a distractor. Class D & E have the first three bits set to 1. Class D the 4th bit is 0 and for Class E the 4th bit to 1.
Classless Internet Domain Routing (CIDR) High Order bits are shown in bold below.
For Class A, the addresses are 0.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255 The lowest Class A address is represented in binary as 00000000.00000000.0000000.00000000
For Class B networks, the addresses are 18.104.22.168 - 22.214.171.124. The lowest Class B address is represented in binary as 10000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
For Class C, the addresses are 192.0.0.0 - 126.96.36.199 The lowest Class C address is represented in binary as 11000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
For Class D, the addresses are 188.8.131.52 - 184.108.40.206 (Multicast) The lowest Class D address is represented in binary as 11100000.00000000.00000000.00000000
For Class E, the addresses are 240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255 (Reserved for future usage) The lowest Class E address is represented in binary as 11110000.00000000.00000000.00000000
Classful IP Address Format
3Com http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/infra/corpinfo/en_US/501302.pdf AIOv3 Telecommunications and Networking Security (page 438)
NEW QUESTION 8
Which SSL version offers client-side authentication?
- A. SSL v1
- B. SSL v2
- C. SSL v3
- D. SSL v4
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is the technology used in most Web-based applications. SSL version 2.0 supports strong authentication of the web server, but the authentication of the client side only comes with version 3.0. SSL v4 is not a defined standard.
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, Micki, Information Security Management Handbook, 4th edition (volume 1), 2000, CRC Press, Chapter 3, Secured Connections to External Networks (page 54).
NEW QUESTION 9
Single Sign-on (SSO) is characterized by which of the following advantages?
- A. Convenience
- B. Convenience and centralized administration
- C. Convenience and centralized data administration
- D. Convenience and centralized network administration
Convenience -Using single sign-on users have to type their passwords only once when they first log in to access all the network resources; and Centralized Administration as some single sign-on systems are built around a unified server administration system. This allows a single administrator to add and delete accounts across the entire network from one user interface.
The following answers are incorrect:
Convenience - alone this is not the correct answer.
Centralized Data or Network Administration - these are thrown in to mislead the student. Neither are a benefit to SSO, as these specifically should not be allowed with just an SSO.
References: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook, 4th Edition, Volume 1, page 35.
TIPTON, Harold F. & HENRY, Kevin, Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, 2007, page 180.
NEW QUESTION 10
Which one of the following represents an ALE calculation?
- A. single loss expectancy x annualized rate of occurrence.
- B. gross loss expectancy x loss frequency.
- C. actual replacement cost - proceeds of salvage.
- D. asset value x loss expectancy.
Single Loss Expectancy (SLE) is the dollar amount that would be lost if there was a loss of an asset. Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO) is an estimated possibility of a threat to an asset taking place in one year (for example if there is a change of a flood
occuring once in 10 years the ARO would be .1, and if there was a chance of a flood occuring once in 100 years then the ARO would be .01).
The following answers are incorrect:
gross loss expectancy x loss frequency. Is incorrect because this is a distractor.
actual replacement cost - proceeds of salvage. Is incorrect because this is a distractor. asset value x loss expectancy. Is incorrect because this is a distractor.
NEW QUESTION 11
Which of the following backup method must be made regardless of whether Differential or Incremental methods are used?
- A. Full Backup Method.
- B. Incremental backup method.
- C. Supplemental backup method.
- D. Tape backup method.
A Full Backup must be made regardless of whether Differential or Incremental methods are used.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 69.
And: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 9: Disaster Recovery and Business continuity (pages 617-619).
NEW QUESTION 12
Which of the following is NOT a common backup method?
- A. Full backup method
- B. Daily backup method
- C. Incremental backup method
- D. Differential backup method
A daily backup is not a backup method, but defines periodicity at which backups are made. There can be daily full, incremental or differential backups.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and Network Security (page 69).
NEW QUESTION 13
Secure Shell (SSH-2) supports authentication, compression, confidentiality, and integrity, SSH is commonly used as a secure alternative to all of the following protocols below except:
- A. telnet
- B. rlogin
- C. RSH
- D. HTTPS
HTTPS is used for secure web transactions and is not commonly replaced by SSH.
Users often want to log on to a remote computer. Unfortunately, most early implementations to meet that need were designed for a trusted network. Protocols/programs, such as TELNET, RSH, and rlogin, transmit unencrypted over the network, which allows traffic to be easily intercepted. Secure shell (SSH) was designed as an alternative to the above insecure protocols and allows users to securely access resources on remote computers over an encrypted tunnel. SSH??s services include remote log-on, file transfer, and command execution. It also supports port forwarding, which redirects other protocols through an encrypted SSH tunnel. Many users protect less secure traffic of protocols, such as X Windows and VNC (virtual network computing), by forwarding them through a SSH tunnel. The SSH tunnel protects the integrity of communication, preventing session hijacking and other man-in-the-middle attacks. Another advantage of SSH over its predecessors is that it supports strong authentication. There are several alternatives for SSH clients to authenticate to a SSH server, including passwords and digital certificates. Keep in mind that authenticating with a password is still a significant improvement over the other protocols because the password is transmitted encrypted.
The following were wrong answers:
telnet is an incorrect choice. SSH is commonly used as an more secure alternative to telnet. In fact Telnet should not longer be used today.
rlogin is and incorrect choice. SSH is commonly used as a more secure alternative to rlogin.
RSH is an incorrect choice. SSH is commonly used as a more secure alternative to RSH. Reference(s) used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 7077-7088). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
NEW QUESTION 14
What is the maximum allowable key size of the Rijndael encryption algorithm?
- A. 128 bits
- B. 192 bits
- C. 256 bits
- D. 512 bits
The Rijndael algorithm, chosen as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to replace DES, can be categorized as an iterated block cipher with a variable block length and key length that can be independently chosen as 128, 192 or 256 bits.
Below you have a summary of the differences between AES and Rijndael.
AES is the advanced encryption standard defined by FIPS 197. It is implemented differently than Rijndael:
FIPS-197 specifies that the block size must always be 128 bits in AES, and that the key size may be either 128, 192, or 256 bits. Therefore AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256 are actually:
Key Size (bits) Number of rounds Block Size (bits)
128 10 Rounds
192 12 Rounds
256 14 Rounds
Some book will say "up to 9 rounds will be done with a 128 bits keys". Really it is 10 rounds because you must include round zero which is the first round.
By contrast, the Rijndael specification per se is specified with block and key sizes that may be any multiple of 32 bits, both with a minimum of 128 and a maximum of 256 bits.
Reference(s) used for this question:
KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (page 153).
NEW QUESTION 15
Which access control model achieves data integrity through well-formed transactions and separation of duties?
- A. Clark-Wilson model
- B. Biba model
- C. Non-interference model
- D. Sutherland model
The Clark-Wilson model differs from other models that are subject- and object- oriented by introducing a third access element programs resulting in what is called an access triple, which prevents unauthorized users from modifying data or programs. The Biba model uses objects and subjects and addresses integrity based on a hierarchical
lattice of integrity levels. The non-interference model is related to the information flow model with restrictions on the information flow. The Sutherland model approaches integrity by focusing on the problem of inference.
Source: ANDRESS, Mandy, Exam Cram CISSP, Coriolis, 2001, Chapter 2: Access Control Systems and Methodology (page 12).
And: KRAUSE, Micki & TIPTON, Harold F., Handbook of Information Security Management, CRC Press, 1997, Domain 1: Access Control.
NEW QUESTION 16
This baseline sets certain thresholds for specific errors or mistakes allowed and the amount of these occurrences that can take place before it is considered suspicious?
- A. Checkpoint level
- B. Ceiling level
- C. Clipping level
- D. Threshold level
Organizations usually forgive a particular type, number, or pattern of violations, thus permitting a predetermined number of user errors before gathering this data for analysis. An organization attempting to track all violations, without sophisticated statistical computing ability, would be unable to manage the sheer quantity of such data. To make a violation listing effective, a clipping level must be established.
The clipping level establishes a baseline for violation activities that may be normal user errors. Only after this baseline is exceeded is a violation record produced. This solution is particularly effective for small- to medium-sized installations. Organizations with large-scale computing facilities often track all violations and use statistical routines to cull out the minor infractions (e.g., forgetting a password or mistyping it several times).
If the number of violations being tracked becomes unmanageable, the first step in correcting the problems should be to analyze why the condition has occurred. Do users understand how they are to interact with the computer resource? Are the rules too difficult to follow? Violation tracking and analysis can be valuable tools in assisting an organization to develop thorough but useable controls. Once these are in place and records are produced that accurately reflect serious violations, tracking and analysis become the first line of defense. With this procedure, intrusions are discovered before major damage occurs and sometimes early enough to catch the perpetrator. In addition, business protection and preservation are strengthened.
The following answers are incorrect:
All of the other choices presented were simply detractors. The following reference(s) were used for this question:
Handbook of Information Security Management
NEW QUESTION 17
Related to information security, integrity is the opposite of which of the following?
- A. abstraction
- B. alteration
- C. accreditation
- D. application
Integrity is the opposite of "alteration."
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 59.
NEW QUESTION 18
Which of the following backup sites is the most effective for disaster recovery?
- A. Time brokers
- B. Hot sites
- C. Cold sites
- D. Reciprocal Agreement
A hot site has the equipment, software and communications capabilities to facilitate a recovery within a few minutes or hours following the notification of a disaster to the organization's primary site. With the exception of providing your own hot site, commercial hot sites provide the greatest protection. Most will allow you up to six weeks to restore your sites if you declare a disaster. They also permit an annual amount of time to test the Disaster Plan.
The following answers are incorrect:
Cold sites. Cold sites are empty computer rooms consisting only of environmental systems, such as air conditioning and raised floors, etc. They do not meet the requirements of most regulators and boards of directors that the disaster plan be tested at least annually.
Reciprocal Agreement. Reciprocal agreements are not contracts and cannot be enforced. You cannot force someone you have such an agreement with to provide processing to you. Government regulators do not accept reciprocal agreements as valid disaster recovery backup sites.
Time Brokers. Time Brokers promise to deliver processing time on other systems. They charge a fee, but cannot guaranty that processing will always be available, especially in areas that experienced multiple disasters.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: ISC2 OIG, 2007 p368
Shon Harris AIO v3. p.710
NEW QUESTION 19
Ensuring least privilege does not require:
- A. Identifying what the user's job is.
- B. Ensuring that the user alone does not have sufficient rights to subvert an important process.
- C. Determining the minimum set of privileges required for a user to perform their duties.
- D. Restricting the user to required privileges and nothing more.
Ensuring that the user alone does not have sufficient rights to subvert an important process is a concern of the separation of duties principle and it does not concern the least privilege principle.
Source: DUPUIS, Cl??ment, Access Control Systems and Methodology CISSP Open Study
Guide, version 1.0, march 2002 (page 33).
NEW QUESTION 20
Which of the following algorithms is used today for encryption in PGP?
- A. RSA
- B. IDEA
- C. Blowfish
- D. RC5
The Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) email encryption system was developed by Phil Zimmerman. For encrypting messages, it actually uses AES with up to 256-bit keys, CAST, TripleDES, IDEA and Twofish. RSA is also used in PGP, but only for symmetric key exchange and for digital signatures, but not for encryption.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (pages 154, 169).
More info on PGP can be found on their site at http://www.pgp.com/display.php?pageID=29.
NEW QUESTION 21
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of symmetric cryptography when compared
with Asymmetric Ciphers?
- A. Provides Limited security services
- B. Has no built in Key distribution
- C. Speed
- D. Large number of keys are needed
Symmetric cryptography ciphers are generally fast and hard to break. So speed is one of the key advantage of Symmetric ciphers and NOT a disadvantage. Symmetric Ciphers uses simple encryption steps such as XOR, substitution, permutation, shifting columns, shifting rows, etc... Such steps does not required a large amount of processing power compare to the complex mathematical problem used within Asymmetric Ciphers.
Some of the weaknesses of Symmetric Ciphers are:
The lack of automated key distribution. Usually an Asymmetric cipher would be use to protect the symmetric key if it needs to be communicated to another entity securely over a public network. In the good old day this was done manually where it was distributed using the Floppy Net sometimes called the Sneaker Net (you run to someone's office to give them the key).
As far as the total number of keys are required to communicate securely between a large group of users, it does not scale very well. 10 users would require 45 keys for them to communicate securely with each other. If you have 1000 users then you would need almost half a million key to communicate secure. On Asymmetric ciphers there is only 2000 keys required for 1000 users. The formula to calculate the total number of keys required for a group of users who wishes to communicate securely with each others using Symmetric encryption is Total Number of Users (N) * Total Number of users minus one Divided by 2 or N (N-1)/2
Symmetric Ciphers are limited when it comes to security services, they cannot provide all of the security services provided by Asymmetric ciphers. Symmetric ciphers provides mostly confidentiality but can also provide integrity and authentication if a Message Authentication Code (MAC) is used and could also provide user authentication if Kerberos is used for example. Symmetric Ciphers cannot provide Digital Signature and Non- Repudiation.
Reference used for theis question:
WALLHOFF, John, CBK#5 Cryptography (CISSP Study Guide), April 2002 (page 2).
NEW QUESTION 22
Which of the following is most concerned with personnel security?
- A. Management controls
- B. Operational controls
- C. Technical controls
- D. Human resources controls
Many important issues in computer security involve human users, designers, implementers, and managers.
A broad range of security issues relates to how these individuals interact with computers and the access and authorities they need to do their jobs. Since operational controls address security methods focusing on mechanisms primarily implemented and executed by people (as opposed to systems), personnel security is considered a form of operational control.
Operational controls are put in place to improve security of a particular system (or group of systems). They often require specialized expertise and often rely upon management activities as well as technical controls. Implementing dual control and making sure that you have more than one person that can perform a task would fall into this category as well.
Management controls focus on the management of the IT security system and the management of risk for a system. They are techniques and concerns that are normally addressed by management.
Technical controls focus on security controls that the computer system executes. The controls can provide automated protection for unauthorized access of misuse, facilitate detection of security violations, and support security requirements for applications and data.
Reference use for this question:
NIST SP 800-53 Revision 4 http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.800-53r4 You can get it as a word document by clicking HERE
NIST SP 800-53 Revision 4 has superseded the document below:
SWANSON, Marianne, NIST Special Publication 800-26, Security Self-Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems, November 2001 (Page A-18).
NEW QUESTION 23
Which of the following prevents, detects, and corrects errors so that the integrity, availability, and confidentiality of transactions over networks may be maintained?
- A. Communications security management and techniques
- B. Information security management and techniques
- C. Client security management and techniques
- D. Server security management and techniques
Communications security and techniques are the best area for addressing this objective.
"Information security management and techniques" is incorrect. While the overall information security program would include this objective, communications security is the more specific and better answer.
"Client security management and techniques" is incorrect. While client security plays a part in this overall objective, communications security is the more specific and better answer.
"Server security management and techniques" is incorrect. While server security plays a part in this overall objective, communications security is the more specific and better
References: CBK, p. 408
NEW QUESTION 24
Which authentication technique best protects against hijacking?
- A. Static authentication
- B. Continuous authentication
- C. Robust authentication
- D. Strong authentication
A continuous authentication provides protection against impostors who can see, alter, and insert information passed between the claimant and verifier even after the claimant/verifier authentication is complete. This is the best protection against hijacking. Static authentication is the type of authentication provided by traditional password schemes and the strength of the authentication is highly dependent on the difficulty of guessing passwords. The robust authentication mechanism relies on dynamic authentication data that changes with each authenticated session between a claimant and a verifier, and it does not protect against hijacking. Strong authentication refers to a two-factor authentication (like something a user knows and something a user is).
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, Micki, Information Security Management Handbook, 4th edition (volume 1), 2000, CRC Press, Chapter 3: Secured Connections to External Networks (page 51).
NEW QUESTION 25
What principle focuses on the uniqueness of separate objects that must be joined together to perform a task? It is sometimes referred to as ??what each must bring?? and joined together when getting access or decrypting a file. Each of which does not reveal the other?
- A. Dual control
- B. Separation of duties
- C. Split knowledge
- D. Need to know
Split knowledge involves encryption keys being separated into two components, each of which does not reveal the other. Split knowledge is the other complementary access control principle to dual control.
In cryptographic terms, one could say dual control and split knowledge are properly implemented if no one person has access to or knowledge of the content of the complete cryptographic key being protected by the two rocesses.
The sound implementation of dual control and split knowledge in a cryptographic environment necessarily means that the quickest way to break the key would be through the best attack known for the algorithm of that key. The principles of dual control and split knowledge primarily apply to access to plaintext keys.
Access to cryptographic keys used for encrypting and decrypting data or access to keys that are encrypted under a master key (which may or may not be maintained under dual control and split knowledge) do not require dual control and split knowledge. Dual control
and split knowledge can be summed up as the determination of any part of a key being protected must require the collusion between two or more persons with each supplying unique cryptographic materials that must be joined together to access the protected key.
Any feasible method to violate the axiom means that the principles of dual control and split knowledge are not being upheld.
Split knowledge is the unique ??what each must bring?? and joined together when implementing dual control. To illustrate, a box containing petty cash is secured by one combination lock and one keyed lock. One employee is given the combination to the combo lock and another employee has possession of the correct key to the keyed lock.
In order to get the cash out of the box both employees must be present at the cash box at the same time. One cannot open the box without the other. This is the aspect of dual control.
On the other hand, split knowledge is exemplified here by the different objects (the combination to the combo lock and the correct physical key), both of which are unique and necessary, that each brings to the meeting. Split knowledge focuses on the uniqueness of separate objects that must be joined together.
Dual control has to do with forcing the collusion of at least two or more persons to combine their split knowledge to gain access to an asset. Both split knowledge and dual control complement each other and are necessary functions that implement the segregation of duties in high integrity cryptographic environments.
The following are incorrect answers:
Dual control is a procedure that uses two or more entities (usually persons) operating in concert to protect a system resource, such that no single entity acting alone can access that resource. Dual control is implemented as a security procedure that requires two or more persons to come together and collude to complete a process. In a cryptographic system the two (or more) persons would each supply a unique key, that when taken together, performs a cryptographic process. Split knowledge is the other complementary access control principle to dual control.
Separation of duties - The practice of dividing the steps in a system function among different individuals, so as to keep a single individual from subverting the process.
The need-to-know principle requires a user having necessity for access to, knowledge of, or possession of specific information required to perform official tasks or services.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Schneiter, Andrew (2013-04-15). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition : Cryptography (Kindle Locations 1621-1635). . Kindle Edition.
Schneiter, Andrew (2013-04-15). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition : Cryptography (Kindle Locations 1643-1650). . Kindle Edition.
Shon Harris, CISSP All In One (AIO), 6th Edition , page 126
NEW QUESTION 26
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